Olive Sparrows occur naturally in North America and Middle America.
In the United States they are found in southern Texas. From there they range south into Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
They are resident birds (non-migratory) and inhabit weedy thickets, semi-open scrub, chaparral, and undergrowth near forests – from sea level to 6,000 feet. They typically avoid humid tropical forests.